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African Revolution
The African Revolution
Course Description:  
This course is intended to
introduce students to the
politics of Africa, its history,
particularly as it relates to
colonialism and the
formation of Liberation
Movements that have
existed and the course they
have taken.  This course intends
to explain why the existing
governments reflect the form of
struggle that took place, then we
should in our analysis find in
Africa different forms of
governments, some revolutionary,
and others are not.
Required Readings:  Because some of the books which were recommended
are not available for one reason or another, not all books for the course can be
found in the bookstore.   However, we can order some directly.

1)  Palmer, Mai, The Struggle for Africa, Zed Press, 1983
2)  Leonard, Richard,
South Africa at War, Lawrence Hill & Co., 1978
3)  Stockwell, John,
In Search of Enemies: A CIA Story, W.W. Norton & Co., 1978
4)  Munslow, Barry, Mozambique:  
The Revolution and its origin, Logman Press
5)  Peel & Ranger,
Past and Present in Zimbabwe, Manchester Univ. Press

Topics to be discussed:
1)  The Concept - Revolution:  What does it mean and where does it apply in Africa.
2)  
Liberation Movements:  Liberation movements, their course and differences.  The
first              difference is between Civil Rights and Liberation Movements.  The second
difference                is between liberation movements themselves - the narrow nationalistic and
the
Broader nationalistic movements.
3)  
History:  In Africa of colonialism, the liberation movements, ensued with world war.
4)  
The Struggle in Algeria: Did it represent a revolution or a mere change of the face
of                 the rider?
5)  
Liberation Struggle in Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde: What problems existed
there                 and why?
6)  
Liberation struggle in Mozambique:  A success or a failure of Revolution?
7)  
Liberation struggle in Angola: What problems existed there and why?
8)  
Liberation struggle in Zimbabwe: What problems are there for a revolution?
9)  
Liberation struggle in Namibia: What problems are there now and what about the         
future?
10)  
Liberation struggle in South Africa: What is the nature and future of this struggle?
11)  
Organization of African Unity OAU: What lies ahead?
"Blacks in the City"
Course click
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Sponsored by the Collective Black People Movement (CBPM)
1.3
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Professor Ernest Dube
Original Lesson Date: 1-24-84

* When people think about Revolution, they think about violence.
*
Revolution - A realistic change of Government and the entire social system.   A radical
change of the political and cultural systems of a country bringing in a total new structure.
*
French Revolution - It was changing the old order (Kings family rule) and bringing in the new
order ( a rule of merit).  There was a change in attitude of the people who and who should
not have the right and also a change in the value of the people.
*
American Revolution - was a revolution against a monarchy in England.
* The American Revolution was the over throw of the old system.  It brought about a new
social order, Democracy.
*
Social System - freedom from hunger and other people
* Marxist say the American system is a freedom of majority exploiting the minority for their own
benefit.











* The change of ideas could bring about radical change in social order and it is revolutionary.
*
Industrial Revolution - A restructering of production.  The need for man power decreased.  
Specialization was produced as a result of the Industrial Revolution.  There was an alienation
of work and accomplishments decreased.
* The Marxist consider alienation as considering the people as a tool.
* The Industrial Revolution decreased the barter system and the working class developed.
.
* Liberation Movements - most of leaders are
educated in Religious Schools.  They use there
moral forces learned in school to try and bring
about changes.
*
2 Forms of Liberation Movements:
a.  Civil Rights Movement
b.  Revolutionary Movements
* There is a thin line of separation between the two.
* Liberation Movement is a movement trying to
move people to understand their social situation.
*
Ways in which Liberation leader tries:
a.  Move people that are oppressed to
understand that they are oppressed.
b.  It is unnatural because it is the works of
man and they are unjust.
* Liberation Movements say to the oppressor what
you are doing is not moral and you should do
the things that are moral.
*
Problem with Liberation Movements:
a.  They want to change society and the people in control never let go power easily.
b.  Only way to succeed is if the people in society agrees with you.
*
Civil Rights Movement - They do not want to change the structure of society just want the
inclusion of those who has been left out.
* Liberation Movements aim to change the structure of society.
*
3rd World Countries - There is a call for majority rule and democracy for all citizens, but this
is not so.  The majority is being oppressed and the minority is the oppressors.
* 3rd World Countries don't experience democracy because the minority (oppressors) control
the political and economical power.  All they want is for themselves.  Democracy is an Illusion
because you have the minority in control of everything.
* The difference between Civil Rights Movement and Liberation Movement is with a liberation
movement, change must come in Politics and Economics.
*
Nationalist Movement:
a.  Very narrow
b.  Narrow Goals
*
Revolutionary Movements
a.  Clearly defined movement.
b.  Has what is to be done about political and economic trouble.
c.  Has set Goals.
* Both Nationalist Movement and Revolutionary Movements begins as a Nationalistic
Movement.  The oppressor's force decides were the movement goes.
*
Oppressor will say that this is society and those people are trying to disrupt the society.  So
the oppressor say the defense of law and order is their point.  They do not look at the points
of the movement.
*
1950's - there was a talk of Parallel movements (white and black).  This would not work
because one group had all the political and economic control.
* All the oppressed have is moral support and numbers of people going against police and
soldiers.
* Oppressor and his tactics forces the oppressed to change their movement.
* Change America tried to do to make them look good in the world eyes is to desegregate the
people.
*
Nationalistic Movements also reacts to the oppressors force.  The more pressure, the more
radical they get.  The less pressure, the less radical they get.
* When the oppressors are not loosing the control of the Economy,
then they will give the oppressed what they want even part of the
political control.
* Until race is of no significance, there will be no change in the
economic control.
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Africa's Natural
Resources is the
Birth African
People.
Visit the Elders Webpage here
* 1865 - 4,000,000 Black
People live in the U S.
*
1900 - 8,000,000 Black
People live in the U S.
*
1984 - 30,000,000 Black
People live in the U S.
"Black in the City"
Lesson #6
The African People found out that the leaders who came into leadership
behave as the leaders of before...Stay Tuned for Lesson #3:
Lesson #1: "African Revolution"
Lesson #2: "African Revolution"
Original Lesson Date: 1-26-84
Lesson #3: "African Revolution"
Original Lesson Date: 1-31-84





















The Liberation Struggle in Angola begins, a colony of Portugal
* Negro and Caucasion are just lables of description.  
They are myths.  It is people who define
race.
*
Revolutionary Movements:
* Political Movements have two clear difference:
a.  Civil Rights Movement - not formed for the
purpose          of changing old structure as to bring
about a new  
society.  There aim is of a group that has been an
outsider for the inclusion in society.
b.  Liberation Movements - want to change the
structure of society.
*
Most Liberation Movements in Africa were not  
interested in changing the political, social, and   
economical structure of society, they were interested   
in changing the people in charge running the system.
(Change of the face of the rider.)
* The African People found out that the people who
came into leadership behaved as the leaders of before    
and they were in the same position.
Angola: Battling for Birth
On November 11, 1975, the massive
southwest African territory of Angola gained
independence after 500 years of
Portuguese colonial domination. The
longest liberation struggle in Africa has
ended.
Refugees in Angola fleeing the
war torn areas.  
Did you know
that Angola and Mozambique
have the most amount of
Aputees out of any country in
the world.
* 1975 - (June) FNLA and CIA plotted to
assacinate all the leaders of MPLA
and there would be no elections.  The
MPLA found out about the plots and
beat them out of Zaire (Congo).  
UNITA joined the FNLA and fought
against MPLA.
*
1975 - (August) No special group
occupied the control of the country.
* MPLA - got help from Nigeria, Mozambique, and
Cuba to fight against the Apartheid soldiers of
South Africa, the CIA, FNLA, and UNITA to
become victorious on November 11th, 1975 the
Independence day of Angola from Portugal.  The
battle of Cuito Cuanavale was one of the most
important episodes in Angola's Liberation Movement.
Cuban and Angolan
Soldiers
CBPM Angola click: Here
CBPM Angola click: Here
Lesson #4: "African Revolution"
Original Lesson Date: 2-2-84
1
* If South Africa was to be liberated, the whole
political and economical situation of Africa
would be dropped.
* Colors of Flag of South Africa is yellow for
the minerals, green for the land, and black for
the people.

*
National Anthem -  God Bless Africa is the
National Anthem for
South Africa,
Zimbabwe, and Namibia.

*
Freedom Charter - Land belongs to the
people.  The Freedom Charter has many
elements that are Socialist and not socialist.  
It is not against small business men, it is
against monopolies.  The Freedom Charter
says the mines are not owned by one, but
owned by all.

*
Mozambique - you can not own land
because the land belongs to the people.

*
Nguni - most people can understand in
terms of Numbers in South Africa.
Most People in South Africa Speak:
a.  Sotho
b.  Nguni
c.  Shangaan
d.  Venda
Other Languages spoken by educated:
a.  English
b.  Afrikaans
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Time for Jah People to Unite
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Counter
United We Stand
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Publisher of Black Men
* 1951 - MPLA - Popular Liberation Movement of Angola formed.
*
1961 - FNLA - was formed by the C.I.A. (Central Intelligence Agency of the United
States) in Ziare which is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo to conteract the MPLA.
*
1968 - UNITA - United National Independence for the total liberation of Africa formed from
breaking away from the FNLA.  UNITA was supported by Portugal to fight for Portugal's
interest.
*
1963, May 25th - OAU - Organization of African Unity formed by the free states
(countries) of Africa.  Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia is known as the father of the
OAU.  Every since this day, each year on May 25th, African Liberation Day celebrated all
over the world.  May is known as African Liberation Month each year.
*
The CIA had the OAU (Organization of African Unity) system helping FNLA.
*
1965-66 - The OAU found out that FNLA was fighting against the rebels who was leading
the struggle against foreign rule.
*
1966 - The OAU moves to support MPLA.
*
1974 - The United States forced the OAU to join MPLA, FNLA, and UNITA as to set up a
democracy.
* 1975 - (August) Ford and Kissenger of the United States negotiated with South Africa to
invade the Congo.  Because in November 1975 portugal would free its rule of control of the
Congo (Rwanda).
African Revolution Taught By
Professor Ernest Dube