CBPM Index:
Blacks in the City
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Courses Offered for free here at the CBPM Website include:
1.  Blacks in the City Course- A look at the movement of Black People's struggle for freedom in the United  
States of America from Reconstruction to the Civil Rights Movement.  (
 Lessons 1, 2, & 3, click here, Lesson 4,
5, & 6 click here, Lesson 7 see below )
2.  African Revolution - A look at some of the countries in Africa that had to use armed struggle to gain their
independence from their Colonizer. Taught by Professor Ernest Dube.
Click Here.
3.  Caribbean Studies - A look at the history of African People in the Caribbean from slavery to the present.
4.  Slavery in the United States - A look of the history of Black (African) People during slavery.   
5.  More to Come...
African History is the history of Black
(African) People from all over the world.
Introduction to Blacks in the City:
Blacks in the City is a class offered at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook, by the
African Studies Department.  Professor Amiri Baraka (Brother Leroy Jones) was the department Chair
and also taught the course "Blacks in the City", a look at the struggles of Black People in the United
States from reconstruction (1865) to the Civil Rights Movement (1960's).
The class is now available here at the Collective Black People Movement (CBPM) website because a
member of the CBPM brought their University notes to the Collective to share with our people.
CBPM encourages Black People to take good notes in school and to bring this information back to the
community to spread the knowledge.  In this way, the cost to educate one individual from the community
can educate all in the community who has interest.
Tell a Friend
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Visit Professor Amiri Baraka's website: www.amiribaraka.com
Lessons Click: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6

*  Black Population in the U.S.
a.  1860 - 4,000,000
b.  1900 - 8,000,000
1860 - 12% of Southern Whites had slaves, one or two, a small minority had great plantations.
1860 - Some plantations contained up to 22,000 blacks enslaved in Baltimore, Richmond,
Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, New Orleans, St. Louis, and Louisville.
1980 Census - 81 Cities in the U.S. with at least 20% of the city's population black.
* South lagged behind the north in city development.
1850 - Charleston, South Carolina 50% black.
* There is a continuum of the blacks from the types of works they did in slavery days until today.
After the Civil War - Vagrancy was a law that blacks would get put in jail if they did not have a
$500 bond in the city hall.  
* Free blacks were always better economically in the south than in the north.
* Today, blacks in the south have independent businesses funeral parlors...
By the turn of the 19th century, blacks had about as much land as New England Territory, but
every since that time it has diminished.
* In the south there was less political liberty so it would not lead to revolts.
* In the north there was more competition for jobs than in the south cause blacks had to compete
with immigrants.
Specific Revolts on Cities:
a.  1823 - Norfolk, Virginia, groups of
Maroons led a large revolt, militants
Bob Ferrade and William Walker
led these revolts
b.  1827 - New Orleans raided by the
c.  1827 - Macon, Georgia 300 blacks
d.  1829 - Mobile, Alabama
e.  1829 - Huntsville, Alabama
f.  1829 - Fire set on New Orleans
g.  1830 - New Orleans set on fire again.
h.  1830 & 1965 - Cambridge set on
fire by blacks.
* The slave revolts in 1830's, took place at
the same time of the Black Convention
Movements and slave narratives.
* Free Blacks resisted slavery and formed their own organizations.
Nigger Pews - Whites allowed blacks to come to their churches but they had to sit in the back
section called "nigger pews" or "African Corners".
1794 - Blacks formed Churches - African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, Richard Allen
founder.  Today the strongest institution in the African American Society is the church.  
* Most all black leaders have come out of the churches because it evolved from the independent
black churches instead of the segregated churches.
Black Theology - book on militant aspects of black churches by James Cone.
Fraternal Societies -  Mutual benefit societies formed before the churches, 1780.  In Philadelphia
a group formed to record births and deaths of blacks.
African Zion - Church formed in 1821.
* Philadelphia blacks considered themselves the most developed socially and economically.
* New York was the headquarters of the Black Convention Movements ever since Fredrick
Douglass moved there.
1822 - Denmark Vesse led slave revolts
* 1831 - Nat Turner led slave revolts
* After these Denmark and Nat, the south opposes black churches.
* The Rebellions led by Denmark and Nat was terrifying to the majority of the population.  These
rebellions was not publicised much after it happened.
* In New Orleans there was a sharp class difference between blacks and ma lottos.
1700 - There was 1500 blacks in New York.
1856 - Harper's Ferry where slave rebellion led by John Brown.
1910 - 1914: Heavy Black
Immigration into Harlem, from the
South, the Caribbean, and rest of
world...Blacks in the City Lesson 8...
Lessons Click: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6

Northern Cities - Black Manhattan
* Earliest Black community in Manhattan was in Greenwich Village.
* Wall Street, Long Island, Staten Island, and Westchester
was all Slave areas.
Dutch Slavery little lighter than English Slavery.
1741 - Attack on the Battery Fort. Governors Mansion burnt down.  All blacks and whites who
participated in this was hanged.
* 5 out of 6 blacks were free in 19th century.
1863 - A lot of pro sentiment for slavery in the upper class because they were connected to
southern plantation owners.
1863 - Draft Riots.  Irish immigrants attacked blacks, burned down nursery then blacks moved to
Hell's Kitchen in N.W. Manhattan (San Juan Hill - 9th ave. west 40's and 50's in New York City.
N.Y.C. - was the antislavery headquarters also here there was the most people against the
Liberation Movement.
1876 - At the end of Reconstruction, the status of blacks declined all over and in New York.
* 1,665  blacks got lynched after Reconstruction.
1900 - Riots began to wake black people up, they saw how far they have been pushed down.
* Syphilis Syndrome - Rise and fall of black people in relationship to black events.
Citizens Protective League formed by T. Thomas Fortune to prevent future injustice against
WEB Dubois and Booker T. Washington signified change in Syphilis Syndrome for blacks.
1967 - Black Panther Party formed in Oakland by Hughie Newton,
a law student, and  Bobby Seals to protect black people against
white police and the norms of American Society.
1900 - Afro American Council formed by J.C. Price.  
The function of the council was to respond to attacks made on blacks.
1900 - Debate between WEB Dubois and Booker T. Washington
1901 - Book "Souls of Black Folks" by WEB Dubois.
3 Fundamental approach to Black Life in America yesterday and today:
a.  Submit
b.  Back to Africa
c.  Stay and Fight
Niagara Movement - formed by whites and black militants.
1901 - Silvester Williams and WEB Dubois formed the Pan African Movement.
1974 - First Pan African Conference in Africa and the sixth Pan African Conference was held in
Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
1888 - Berlin Conference, when Africa was divided up between Europe, Africa was weakened by
taking of Africans as slaves until they were able to take over Africa.
Niagara Movement called for:
a.  Freedom of Speech and Criticism
b.  Recognition of human
c.  Brotherly Hood
d.  Discrimination cease
e.  Separation of street cars based on
race to stop
f.  Same laws for rich and poor (asked
for the rights that comes as a citizen,
asking for democracy.
1954 - Segregation ends legally in the United States.
1910 - NAACP formed in New York, which grew out of the Niagara Movement and incorporated
and absorbed into another direction.
NAACP - means was legally to make change for blacks by bringing law suits by going to court.
1964 - March on Washington DC was coop by Kennedy because he said he would lead it.
1910 - Urban League formed in New York City to generate Urban Development for blacks.
1900 - Uptrend -more blacks aware and organized, more education, more national support for
blacks, and thousands of southern blacks moving to the cities in the north.  WEB Dubois came to
the north from Alabama during this time.
1910 -1914 - Heavy black immigration into Harlem from the south, Caribbean, and the rest of the
world.  Blacks moved to Harlem because Harlem had better living conditions for blacks and the
most modern houses/
Another Day in a students life, there will be another lesson.  Stay tuned to
what the student learns on day Nine in the African History Classes, "Blacks
in the City", offered by the CBPM.
Slavery on Long Island, NY
Hughie Newton & Bobby Seals
Men of Niagara Movement
Women of Niagara Movement
New York City
Long Island
Lesson 9: "Blacks in the City"
Original Lesson Date 10-11-84:
* 1919 - Red Summer, race riots and blood flowed in the streets.
1917 - Russian Revolution, Socialism movements during this time.  Capitalism structures
had to be destroyed (Idea of Blacks).
Palmer Raids - is where they went into black homes and arrested them because they were
socialist sympathizers.
Black Newspapers and Magazines - Crisis, Messengers, The Negro World, Challenge,
crusaders, Opportunity Fire, V.I. Lenin, Only the People were some.
1919 - UNIA-ACL first Convention.
1916 - Garvey comes to the United States from Jamaica.
UNIA - Largest Black Organization.  Most people in the movement were small farmers,
people who came from the south.  The leaders were peti-bourgeois, lawyers, doctors, and

Garvey's Movement talked about developing self-determination:
a.  A Black National Consciousness - a commitment of the people to struggle for         
b.  African Redemption - Garvey's Slogan was "Africa for the Africans".
c.  Economic Development - Black people must develop an independent economic base.

Some reasons why the Garvey Movement declined:
a.  Garvey wanted to make deals with the Europeans.
b.  There was a separation between blacks and ma lottos.
c.  Violently anti-communist.
d.  Garvey attacked the NAACP.
e.  He wanted to meet with the Klan.

Debate - Garvey versus DuBois was the struggle between "Integration" and "Separation".  
Both Garvey and DuBois were talking about two ideas of Democracy.
* Garvey went to Federal Prison in
Atlanta because the ships he bought were not fitted for
sea travel.  He got committed for mail fraud, set up by blacks because he sold bad tickets to
prominent blacks.  He was Freed and deported.
1915 - 1929 - Harlem Renissance, immigration to the north.
1929 - A bellying out
1901 - W.E.B. DuBois, Pan African Movement & Authored Souls of Black Folks.
1906 - Niagara Movement
1910 - NAACP
* 1901 - Huge flow of blacks to the north, factory demands grow.
* World War I - was to make the world safer for democracy.  Blacks were needed in the north
because the flow of Europeans to America was cut off.
* Black Churches owns a lot of Harlem.
1919 - Wide spread race riots.  New York City did not have so much riots as compared to
Detroit, Chicago, and Cincinnati because of the white resistance.
1930 - James Weldon Jordan asked will Black people be able to hold to Harlem?
* In Harlem today, the working class is beginning to move out of Harlem.
1915 -1930 - Harlem Renaissance was an art movement with Zora Hurston (writer), Duke
Ellington, Langston Hughes, Claude McKay...
Claude McKay - wrote fighting literature to raise the consciousness of blacks.  He wrote on
the history of Blacks and movements of blacks.
* Harlem becomes "world known" as a major Black City.
1915 - 1930 - was the Jazz Age.  Jazz came up the river from the south with the people.  
Mississippi river runs to Chicago.
* 1916 - Marcus Garvey's UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association) published and
distributed the Negro World worldwide.
1917 July - Two blacks killed in St. Louis.  July 22nd, 10,000 black people marched up 5th
Avenue in silence.
1917 - Brownsville Affair, Houston, Texas, two black soldiers in uniform jumped on, one was
killed, black soldiers got trucks and tanks and killed 17 white folks, 5 policemen.  62 Blacks
got court marshaled, summoned to jail and hanged.
Lesson 7: "Blacks in the City"
Original Lesson Date 10-4-84:
Lesson 8: "Blacks in the City"
Original Lesson Date 10-9-84:
Lesson 10:
Trends and Tendencies of the Black Movement...the Syphilis Syndrome
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1 Diamond Coaching, Inc - Life/Spiritual Coach
A+ Tutoring
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African Community Center for Unity and  
- Self-Determination - Functional Unity
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